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Cómo se clasifican los cementos asfálticos

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Cuando se habla del asfalto o cemento asfáltico, se hace referencia al material obtenido a través del proceso de refinación del petróleo en el cual se eliminan volátiles y parte de sus aceites, obteniéndose un material viscoso, impermeable, termoplástico y altamente adherente a materiales pétreos.

Las cualidades de este material lo hacen perfecto para la construcción de caminos y carreteras, ya que facilitan su adherencia a materiales pétreos. Esto significa que la pavimentación de un concreto asfáltico elaborado y aplicado adecuadamente perdurará muchos años de manera impermeable y resistente al tráfico vehicular ligero o pesado según las especificaciones.

En el caso de México, las  especificaciones con las que debe cumplir el asfalto son establecidas por la Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes (SCT), entidad que se encarga de tomar en cuenta los materiales pétreos y el clima de las diferentes regiones del país.

¿Cuáles son las clasificaciones de los Asfaltos?  

Como se mencionó anteriormente, dependiendo de la región en que se utilizará el asfalto, éste debe tener diferentes especificaciones que permitirán que el material no sufra deterioro en el corto plazo debido a las condiciones climatológicas o el tráfico vehícular, sin embargo existen ciertas clasificaciones estándar para el cemento asfáltico.

Clasificación del cemento asfáltico según su viscosidad

Durante muchos años, se utilizó esta clasificación para definir el cumplimiento con diversos puntos de calidad en las mezclas asfálticas de acuerdo a su viscosidad; dependiendo de los resultados obtenidos se clasificaban en:

  • AC – 5
  • AC – 10
  • AC – 20
  • AC – 30

Sin embargo, con el paso de los años se notó que estos asfaltos no tenían un rendimiento positivo en las pruebas de resistencia, presentando problemas como el agrietamiento por fatiga (piel de cocodrilo), marca de rodadura, o ahuellamientos y agrietamientos, que llevaron a los ingenieros a realizar investigaciones que pudieran dar solución a los problemas, de ahí que surgieran nuevas clasificaciones con los asfaltos modificados.

Asfaltos Modificados, el fin a las pesadillas de mantenimiento constante

En la búsqueda por solucionar los problemas anteriores se empezaron a añadir diferentes polímeros al asfalto que permitieron que el mismo tuviera una resistencia mucho mayor a la fatiga y carga vehícular. A los productos obtenidos de esto se les llamó asfaltos modificados y para hacerlos, es necesario mezclar estos polímeros a una temperatura mínima de 150º y máxima de 170º, de no ser así, una mayor temperatura puede ocasionar oxidamiento en el asfalto, así como una menor temperatura podría no lograr una mezcla homogénea.

Distintos tipos de polímeros para cada mezcla

De acuerdo con sus características y propiedades al mezclarse con el asfalto, existe una clasificación muy bien definida de los distintos tipos de polímeros:

  • Polímeros Tipo I
  • Polímeros Tipo II
  • Polímeros Tipo III
  • Hule Molido de Neumático

Clasificación del cemento asfáltico según Grados PG

Durante la década de los 80’s, en Estados Unidos, se desarrolló un asfalto mejorado con la intención de encontrar un mejor desempeño y durabilidad de las carpetas asfálticas. A este se le llamó Superpave (Superior Performance Pavements). Este tipo de asfalto mejorado, además de solucionar los problemas mencionados anteriormente, es capaz de soportar mayores temperaturas, reduce el envejecimiento y mejoran notablemente su capacidad reológica (absorción y recuperación de la carpeta bajo condiciones de peso). La clasificación de estos está establecida de acuerdo a la temperatura mínima y máxima que soportan:

  • PG 64-22
  • PG 70-22
  • PG 76-22
  • PG 82-22
  • PG 88-22

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